Thursday, July 19, 2018

Surah Al-Baqarah: Verses 67-74 "Murder of an Israeli, slaughter of a cow, and stubbornness of Jews"

STUBBORNNESS & UNREASONABLE ARGUING OF JEWS & ALLAH'S TRIAL
67. And [recall] when Moses said to his people, "Indeed, Allah commands you to slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you take us in ridicule?" He said, "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant."
A wealthy man from the Children of Israel (Jews of Prophet Musa AS' time) was impotent (couldn't have children) and was murdered by his greedy nephew who was to inherit it all. He moved the body during the night and left it at another man's doorstep, framing him for the murder. He claimed revenge the next day and a riot broke out, causing people to lift weapons against each other in trying to find out who the murderer was. Some wise men advised consulting Prophet Musa AS. The Prophet, following Allah's Command, asked them to slaughter a very specific cow. The Jews started unreasonable arguing and questioning. 
68. They said, "Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is." [Moses] said, "[ Allah ] says, 'It is a cow which is neither old nor virgin, but median [below the age of breeding] between that,' so do what you are commanded."
69. They said, "Call upon your Lord to show us what is her color." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in color
[deep yellowish white, appears to radiate sun's rays]- pleasing to the observers.' "
70. They said, "Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is. Indeed, [all] cows look alike to us. And indeed we, if Allah wills, will be guided."
71. He said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to plow the earth nor to irrigate the field, one free from fault with no spot upon her
[honorable, fair looking, defects-free].' " They said, "Now you have come with the truth." So they slaughtered her, but they could hardly do it.
Had they simply slaughtered a cow, as Allah had ordered, their matters would have been simple. But they were stubborn and asked many, unreasonable, argumentative questions about its age, color, and function. Even when they found the cow, they were reluctant to slaughter it. 
The specified cow was found after much search and its owner demanded gold equal to the cow's skin's fill in exchange for it. The cow was slaughtered and the dead Israeli man was touched with a part of it, the man miraculously by the Will of Allah came to life. The people questioned him about his killer and he pointed to his nephew and died again. The nephew was barred from inheriting his wealth and that became the law - murder for sake of inheritance will ban the murderer from inheritance [Ibn Abi Hathim 1:114].
72. And [recall] when you slew a man and disputed over it, but Allah was to bring out that which you were concealing.
73. So, We said, "Strike the slain man with part of it." Thus does Allah bring the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you might reason.
Allah put the Jews argument over the murdered man and the stubbornness to rest by bringing forth the miracle of Resurrection. 
74. Then your hearts became hardened after that, being like stones or even harder. For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out, and there are some of them that fall down [from mountaintops] for fear of Allah . And Allah is not unaware of what you do.
Allah has criticized the Jews in this verse and has warned the believers not to imitate them. Humbleness and fear of Allah is inherent in all inanimate creation as mentioned in many verses of the Quran e.g. Heavens and Earth glorify Him, stars and trees prostrate before Him, the skins of humans will testify on the Day of Judgement, Mount Uhud loves us, Hijr Aswad [Black Stone] used to greet Prophet Muhammad SAW. So, the Jews in this verse have been called worse than stones. 

Wednesday, July 18, 2018

Surah Al-Baqarah: Verses 62-66 "Description of Nations, Taking the Pledge at Mount Tur, Breaking Sabbath, Curse of Apes"

62. Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] - those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.
Allah states that nations earlier than Children of Israel (Jews of Madinah, questioning Prophet Muhammad SAW about Islam) will be rewarded with eternal happiness (Paradise) for their obedience (to the Prophet of their time) and righteousness. The nations mentioned are Jews, Christians, and Sabeans (Sabians). Sabians are said to be religious groups of Middle Eastern tradition (gnostic groups). Angels will descend on them at the time of death to alleviate their fear and give them glad tidings of Paradise as mentioned in 41:30. Those who seek a religion other than Islam will be among the losers (Hell). 

DESCRIPTION OF NATIONS - YAHUD, NASARA, MUMIN, AND SABIANS

Jews were called Yahud because Yahud means repenting and that is what they did following the Torah. Also, second opinion, because they followed Yahuda (Judah) the eldest son of Prophet Ya'qub. A third opinion is because they swayed when reciting Torah. Christians were called Nasara because it comes from Ansar (helpers) and they gave aid and support to each other. A second opinion is because they inhabited a land called An-Nasirah (Nazareth). Ummah of Muhammad SAW is called Mumin (believers) because their faith and belief is certain, very deep, they believe in the message of all previous prophets of all times. Sabians, as mentioned above, are religious groups of Middle Eastern tradition. They're estimated to be a sect among People of the Book who used to read Zabur (Psalms), or worshipped angels or stars. They were neither Jew nor Christian, nor polytheists no Majus. Sometimes it is assumed they never received any prophet. 

TAKING COVENANT FROM JEWS AT MOUNT SINAI (TUR)

63. And [recall] when We took your covenant, [O Children of Israel, to abide by the Torah] and We raised over you the mount, [saying], "Take what We have given you with determination and remember what is in it that perhaps you may become righteous."
64. Then you turned away after that. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have been among the losers.
Mount Sinai (Mount Tur) in Egypt

Allah swore by Mount Sinai (Tur) when the commandments were revealed to the Jews via Prophet Musa AS. He took a pledge from the Jews to worship Him alone and follow His Messengers. He raised the mountain over them, when they were refusing to listen, so they may affirm their faith in seriousness. They were asked to follow the Tawrah (Torah). Despite the seriousness of the event, Jews disobeyed and broke their pledge. Yet, Allah showed them Mercy and blessed them with Messengers in the times ahead.

BREAKING THE SABBATH - CURSED TO BE APES & SWINES


65. And you had already known about those who transgressed among you concerning the sabbath, and We said to them, "Be apes, despised."
66. And We made it a deterrent punishment for those who were present and those who succeeded [them] and a lesson for those who fear Allah.
Allah is reminding the Jews about how their ancestors (in a town by the sea) breached the sanctity of the Sabbath (a day (Saturday) when gathering food was prohibited). They began using fraudulent means for fishing i.e. nets, ropes, and artificial pools of water. At night, they collected fish after the Sabbath ended. Allah changed them from humans to howling monkeys with tails (apes), the closest from to humans. Old people turned to swines (pigs). 
It is clarified by scholars that this nation perished within 3 days without eating, drinking, or offspring so the monkeys and apes of today are not descendants. 
This punishment was made a lesson for all present and for all times.

Surah Al-Baqarah: Verses 58-61 "Refusing Jihad & 40 Years Of Wandering, The Plague & Eternal Curse For Denying Allah's Commands"

THE DEFIANCE OF ALLAH'S COMMANDS BY CHILDREN OF ISRAEL THROUGH THE AGES & PUNISHMENTS

58. And [recall] when We said, "Enter this city and eat from it wherever you will in [ease and] abundance, and enter the gate bowing humbly and say, 'Relieve us of our burdens.' We will [then] forgive your sins for you, and We will increase the doers of good [in goodness and reward]."

59. But those who wronged changed [those words] to a statement other than that which had been said to them, so We sent down upon those who wronged a punishment from the sky because they were defiantly disobeying.

REFUSING JIHAD & 40 YEARS OF WANDERING


Allah is criticizing the Children of Israel (Jews of Madinah who questioned Prophet Muhammad SAW) about their ancestors (Jews under Prophet Musa (Moses) AS). They had come from Egypt to the holy land of Bayt Al Maqdis (Jerusalem), following Prophet Musa AS, and had been rescued by Allah from the tyrant Fir'awn and his army who drowned in the sea. Allah had commanded them to do Jihad (holy struggle and conquering) when they entered Bayt Al Maqdis. He had commanded them to fight the disbelieving 'Amaliq (Canaanites - natives of ancient Palestine) who lived in Bayt Al Maqdis at the time. Due to weakness and exhaustion, the Jews of the time did not wish to fight and they avoided Allah's Command. For this they were punished and Allah caused them to become lost and wander. 

PRIDE & ARROGANCE UPON WINNING BAYT AL MAQDIS & THE PLAGUE

After 40 years of wandering in punishment, at the time of Prophet Yuwsha bin Nun (Joshua, mentioned in the Bibles as an assistant of Moses), Allah allowed the Children of Israel to conquer Bayt Al Maqdis on the eve of a Friday. On the day of combat, the sun was kept from setting for a little longer until the war was won. Once they had won, Allah commanded the Children of Israel to enter Bayt Al Maqdis while prostrating (bowing humbly), appreciating Allah's Favor of ending their punishment, and praying to be relieved of their burden of guilt and sins. They were commanded to say "Hittah" (Relieve us from our errors and sins) but they distorted the command and said "Hintah" (grain seed barley). This means that the Jews defied and entered with their heads raised high - the worst kind of rebellion!
A plague (calamity, sickness) was sent upon them! 

REFUSING ALLAH'S FAVORS KILLING PROPHETS - ETERNAL CURSE FOR ALL CHILDREN OF ISRAEL


60. And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people, so We said, "Strike with your staff the stone." And there gushed forth from it twelve springs, and every people knew its watering place. "Eat and drink from the provision of Allah, and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption."

Allah reminds them again of earlier in time of Prophet Musa AS when they were wandering in the desert. He answered the Prophet's supplication when he'd asked Allah to provide them water. By Allah's Command, Prophet Musa AS struck a square stone with his staff (Asa) and12 springs gushed out - one for each tribe so each had a designated water source and wouldn't need to travel. In return for His Favors, Allah asked them to fulfil the commandments.

61. And [recall] when you said, "O Moses, we can never endure one [kind of] food. So call upon your Lord to bring forth for us from the earth its green herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions." [Moses] said, "Would you exchange what is better for what is less? Go into [any] settlement and indeed, you will have what you have asked." And they were covered with humiliation and poverty and returned with anger from Allah [upon them]. That was because they [repeatedly] disbelieved in the signs of Allah and killed the prophets without right. That was because they disobeyed and were [habitually] transgressing.

In return for Allah's Favors of blessing them with highly nutritious and beneficial manna and quails from Paradise, the Children of Israel were ungrateful and got bored and impatient with the food. They demanded inferior foods like vegetation (lentils, onions, garlic, herbs, grains, seed, bread) from their previous lifestyle before Allah blessed them. They asked Prophet Musa AS to invoke Allah for these choices since they couldn't endure one kind of food. The Prophet refused that if they wished to eat inferior foods, they could very well go into the villages and cities and acquire them for he will not ask Allah to provide inferior options in exchange! 

They also rejected Messengers and Prophets and killed them. 

As punishment, Allah cursed the Jews with humiliation for all eternity. He put them under the feet of Muslims who appeared at a time when the Majus (Zoroastrians) were taking Jizyah (tax) from the Jews. 

Monday, July 9, 2018

Surah Al-Baqarah: Verses 49-57 "Allah Drowns The Cursed Pharaoh, Worshipping The Calf & Punishment, Lightning Strike, Manna & Quail"



ALLAH DROWNS THE CURSED PHARAOH & HIS ARMY
49. And [recall] when We saved your forefathers from the people of Pharaoh, who afflicted you with the worst torment, slaughtering your [newborn] sons and keeping your females alive. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.
Continued from previous verses, Allah continues to remind the Children of Israel (Jews of Madinah addressed in Surah Al-Baqarah) of yet another favor when He saved their forefathers from the cursed Pharaoh (Fir'awn) (most probably Ramses at that time). The Pharaoh had a dream in which a fire emerged from Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) and entered the houses of his people (Coptic Christians of Egypt). The Children of Israel (Jews of the time) were spared though. It was an omen that someone would rise from the Children of Israel and overthrow Pharaoh's rule. The ruthless king ordered widespread massacre of all male babies throughout the nation. The Children of Israel were subjected to great hardships and humiliation. This has been mentioned in Surah Ibrahim as well that Pharaoh and his people were afflicting torture and slaughtering their sons, letting the women live. It was a test from Allah.

50. And [recall] when We parted the sea for you and saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were looking on.
Allah saved the Children of Israel from the tyrant Fir'awn and they fled with Prophet Musa A.S. (Moses). As Fir'awn came after them with his army, Allah brought forth a miracle for Prophet Musa A.S. and the people saw him part the sea (Red sea) by Allah's Command and they crossed to safety. Meanwhile Fir'awn's army drowned while they watched. This happened on the DAY OF ASHURA. When Prophet Muhammad SAWW came to Al-Madinah, the Jews were fasting Ashura because their forefathers were saved from Fir'awn on this day. RasulAllah fasted that day, and ordered Ashura to be fasted as he said that "I have more right to Musa than you have." [Bukhari, Muslim, Nasai, Majah].

WORSHIPPING THE CALF, PUNISHMENT, & FORGIVENESS
51. And [recall] when We made an appointment with Moses for forty nights. Then you took [for worship] the calf after him, while you were wrongdoers.52. Then We forgave you after that so perhaps you would be grateful.53. And [recall] when We gave Moses the Scripture and criterion that perhaps you would be guided.
After the Children of Israel (Jews of Prophet Musa's time) were given safety from Fir'awn and he had drowned, Prophet Musa A.S. was summoned by Allah, to be given the Tawrah, and was gone for 40 days. These 40 days were during the month of Dhul-Q'adah plus the first 10 days of Dhul-Hijjah. He left his people in charge with his brother Harun (Aaron). In his absence the Children of Israel began worshipping a calf and committed shirk.
Next, Allah reminds the Children of Israel (Jews of Al-Madinah of Prophet Muhammad SAWW's time) about the time when He forgave their forefathers' grave sin of shirk and worshipping the calf. When Prophet Musa A.S. returned, he brought them to their senses and told them they had committed a major sin. They regretted and sought forgiveness. The repentance required from them was very tough. They were asked to kill each other - those who did not worship the calf to kill those who did. Prophets Musa and Harun A.S. did not know who was guilty. A group admitted their sin of worshipping the calf and were asked to sit down while those who claimed innocence stood over them with knives (swords) in their hands. A darkness overcame them so they could kill their own people (friends/relatives) easily, and when it lifted there were 70,000 of them dead. Allah did them a favor and forgave the killed and the killer both groups.

DEMAND TO SEE ALLAH, LIGHTNING STRIKE, & RESURRECTION

55. And [recall] when you said, "O Moses, we will never believe you until we see Allah outright"; so the thunderbolt took you while you were looking on.56. Then We revived you after your death that perhaps you would be grateful.
Then Allah reminds the Children of Israel (Jews of Al-Madinah) of another favor. After the 70,000 people had been killed and everyone forgiven, 70 of best men among them (scholars) asked Prophet Musa A.S. to show them Allah publicly with the eye. The demand came up when Prophet Musa AS revealed to them the Commandments of the Tawrah that Allah had revealed to him during his meeting. They demanded that if the Tablets did contain Allah's Commandments then why did He not talk to them Himself and only chose to reveal himself to Prophet Musa AS?
So when they headed out to see Allah, refusing to believe in Him, He struck some of them with lightning while others watched. Prophet Musa A.S. cried and supplicated to Allah "O Lord! What should I say to the Children of Israel when I go back to them after You destroyed the best of them." So, Allah did them a favor and resurrected them one by one as each of them witnessed the miracle. He revealed to Prophet Musa AS ones who had been struck were those who had worshipped the calf but had not accepted their sin. Even after being resurrected when they did not comply with the Commandments, Allah sent angels to topple a mountain over them. 

THE SHADE, THE MANNA AND THE QUAIL


57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down to you manna and quails, [saying], "Eat from the good things with which We have provided you." And they wronged Us not - but they were [only] wronging themselves.
Then, Allah mentions the gifts that He'd given to the Children of Israel. During their years of wandering about in the desert fleeing from Fir'awn, white clouds (cooler and better than the ones we know) used to protect them from sun's heat.
The manna (sweet truffles), sweeter than honey and whiter than milk, used to rain down on them like snowfall from dawn to sunrise and one of them would collect enough for that day. The manna mentioned were nutritious to the level of being eaten alone for the day and sufficing. When mixed with water they would make a sweet drink. There are; however, different types of these truffles known.
They used to spoil beyond that one day. On Friday, 6th day, they would collect enough for the 6th day and the 7th day. The 7th day was the Sabbath when nobody would leave home to seek livelihood or for anything else.
The Salwa (quail) is a bird in Paradise about the size of a sparrow. They would fly down to them as well and one of them would catch as many as would suffice for that one day because their meat would spoil beyond that limit. On the 6th day (Friday) he would store for the day and the next (Sabbath).
Regardless of these miracles that they witnessed daily, the Children of Israel became arrogant and rebelled against the clear signs of Allah. They disbelieved and committed injustice against themselves.

Sunday, June 3, 2018

Surah Al-Baqarah: Verses 38-48 "Instructions for Children of Israel: Torah, Righteousness, Patience, & Prayer"


38. We said, "Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance - there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Continued from previous verses ...
Allah instructed Adam A.S. when He expelled him from Paradise and sent him to earth that guidance will come from him as Books, Messengers, and Prophets. And he should communicate this to his offsprings - the clear signs and warnings. And all of the offsprings of Adam A.S. who would believe in them and follow them would be safe from distress and would be rightly guided.

39. And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs - those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally." Self explanatory.

INSTRUCTION FOR CHILDREN OF ISRAEL 


Reminder of the Covenant already in the Tawrah (Torah)

40. O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I have bestowed upon you and fulfill My covenant [upon you] that I will fulfill your covenant [from Me], and be afraid of [only] Me.
The People of Prophet Yaqub (Israel - meaning servant of Allah) (Jacob) A.S. (Jews by faith) are called Children of Israel. This verse is calling out to the Jews of Madinah, reminding them of their ancestral history, as they were rejecting Prophet Muhammad SAWW. Allah is reminding them that H gifted them with favors: He made water gush from stones, sent down Manna (sweet truffles) and Quail (birds), saved them from the cursed Pharaoh's massacre, and sent Prophets and Books to them for guidance.  

41. And believe in what I have sent down confirming that which is [already] with you, and be not the first to disbelieve in it (the Quran). And do not exchange My signs for a small price, and fear [only] Me.
Allah is reminding them of His Covenant (promise) already with them. The Torah had already been sent to them with news of Prophet Muhammad SAWW who would come from the offspring of Ismail A.S. Allah promised in the Torah that if they'd believe in Prophet Muhammad SAWW when he would come, then all chains and restrictions placed on them (prohibitions and commandments) due to their errors would be removed. And if they believed in him and obeyed him; embraced Islam, they would be rewarded and entered into Paradise. Allah affirms that the Quran confirms and reinstates what is in the Torah and Injil (the Gospel). People from the Quraysh (of Arabs) have already disbelieved in it, you from the People of Israel should not disbelieve since they are the first people to be addressed by Allah in the Quran. They were asked not to exchange (substitute) belief in Allah and Prophet Muhammad SAWW for petty luxuries and comforts of a temporary world. Thirdly, they were asked to have Taqwa (fear of Allah). 

42. And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know [it].
Children of Israel (Jews of Al Madinah) were hiding the truth already in Torah and were distorting it and spreading falsehood (mixing Judaism and Christianity with Islam). They were asked not to misguide and innovate.

43. And establish prayer and give zakah and bow with those who bow [in worship and obedience].
Allah asked them to become part of the Ummah of Muhammad SAWW, to pay Zakat to RasulAllah SAWW, to begin prayers, and to perform good deeds such as the sujood along with them.


Condemning hypocrisy in observing Al-Birr (righteousness)

44. Do you order righteousness of the people and forget yourselves while you recite the Scripture? Then will you not reason? [Have you then no sense?]
Allah is admonishing the Jews of Madinah to practise what they preach (enjoin good for it's part of righteousness) since they instructed people on doing the absolute righteousness and piety but refrained from following. Their deafness and blindness is being questioned (they've forgotten the Covenant). The fate of a hypocrite on the Day of Judgement as explained by Prophet Muhmmad SAWW is horrific. He will be thrown into the Fire. His intestines will fall out and he will continue circling pulling them behind him, just as the donkey goes around the pole. [Bukhari & Muslim].

Seeking help through patience (Sabr) and prayer (Salah)


45. And seek help through patience and prayer, and indeed, it is difficult except for the humbly submissive [to Allah].
46. Who are certain that they will meet their Lord and that they will return to Him.
The goodness of the Hereafter can be acquired through patience (Sabr) and obligatory prayer (Salah). Patience here also encompasses fasting (Ramadan is called the month of patience) [Ibn Abi Hatim]. There are 2 types of Sabr: (1) Good patience: when disaster strikes, and (2) Better patience: avoiding the prohibitions of Allah. Prayer (Salah) is instructed as the complete means of assistance in this life and the next because, as Allah says in Surah Al-Ankabut verse 45, it protects from Al-Fahsha (great sins of every kind) and Al-Munkar (prohibitions). It makes you remember and praise Allah. And prayer is heavy and burdensome for those who are not patient. Those who are accountable to Allah and believe in facing Him on the Day of Judgement will find it comforting and easy.

Children of Israel were preferred above other nations

47. O Children of Israel, remember My favor that I have bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the worlds.
Messengers and Books were sent to them, Prophets and kings were appointed from them. 
Ummah of Prophet Muhammad SAWW; however, is better than them.  We are the 70th nation [Ibn Majah] and are the most honored among all. As Allah has said in Surah Al-e-Imran "You are the best of people ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin good and forbid evil, and you believe in Allah." [verse 110].

48. And fear a Day [of Judgement] when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be taken from it, nor will they be aided.

Nobody will bear another's burden on the Day of Judgement. No father will care for the son, no son will care for the father. No intercession will be accepted from the disbelievers of their power contacts, their false gods, their protectors, no family lineage, no wealth of the world.

Friday, June 1, 2018

Ramadan Diaries Days 13 - 17 Halfway Through, Alhamdulillah.

Day 13 & 14 >>> 🌕 The moon’s full now, and it’ll begin to grow smaller and smaller ••• Soon, the odd nights will be upon us ••• Emotionally, I’m in a dark place because that’s just how I function as a female ••• I wish to talk lesser and lesser ••• The lighter parts of life are shenanigans with the baby nieces ••• we put Nemo and Dory in trouble ••• Chocolate 🍫 Treats are halfway through as well! ••• It’s the best way to count, really ••• Poetry and reading/journaling the tafsir of Quran is how I’m spending my days.


Sunday, May 27, 2018

Surah Al-Baqarah: Verses 29-37 "Creation of Earth & Heavens, Adam & Hawaa, Expulsion from Paradise & Repentance"


CREATION OF THE EARTH AND THE HEAVENS


29. It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven, [His being above all creation], and made them seven heavens, and He is Knowing of all things.

Allah created the Earth in 2 days, before creating the heavens. After the heavens were created the Earth was spread out. Then He placed firm mountains over it, and blessed it, and measured its sustenance in 4 days. Then He positioned the heaven over it when it was smoke. Then He finished both as seven heavens in 2 days and He made each heaven its affair. The nearest, lowest heaven was adorned with lamps [stars] to be an adornment and guard against devils as they are used as missiles. [Surah As-Sajdah]. 

CREATION OF ADAM A.S. AS KHALIFAH ON EARTH  


30. And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority." They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?" Allah said, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know."

Allah informed the angels about making the Children of Adam [humans] the Khalifah on Earth and generation after generation they will rule. Angels questioned Allah, not out of dispute or envy but out of knowledge, for they already knew about human nature and the atrocities it was capable of committing. So they asked if He was going to put the mischiefmakers in charge on Earth. They wanted to know Allah’s Wisdom behind creating humans who would commit mischief and bloodshed, while they only existed to praise and glorify Allah without error. So, Allah informed them about the benefit of creating humans that among them will also be Messengers, Prophets, martyrs, pious worshippers, scholars, and followers of the Message. 
A successive authority (one succeeding the other) was necessary because decisions needed to be made about right and wrong, moral and ethical disputes, legal judgements needed to be passed about the system. 


31. And He taught Adam the names - all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, "Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful."

32. They said, "Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise."
33. He said, "O Adam, inform them of their names." And when he had informed them of their names, He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you have concealed."

Allah exalted Adam (and hence Mankind), and favored him over the angels by giving him knowledge. He taught him the names and characteristic of everything (all creation, all species, plate, pot, donkey, horse, earth, sky, land, see, even the name of breaking wind!). And then paraded the creation before the angels and asked them if they could name any of them. Humans were made Ashraful Makhlooqat. The angels affirmed the holiness, the majesty, the knowledge, and perfectness of Allah and accepted their deficiencies. And then Adam AS was asked to exhibit his knowledge of creation before the angels starting from among them, "You are Jibr'il, you are Mikail, you are Israfil," and ending at the crow. Allah further reinstated that He had already told the angels about His knowledge over the seen and unseen. 

Extra: Prophet Muhammad SAWW said at one time that on the Day of Resurrection the believers will go to each prophet starting from Adam AS [because he is the Father of all Creation] and seek their intercession with Allah so He may forgive them and grant entrance to Paradise. Each prophet will refuse because they will recall their shortcomings (Adam because he will recall the sin of disobedience he committed, Nuh because he questioned Allah about what he was not to question, Musa because he killed a person without justification, and so on). Only Prophet Muhammad SAWW will be able to intercede because Allah has forgiven all his shortcomings. Only he will be able to ask forgiveness for his Ummah. 

EXPULSION OF AZAZIL (IBLIS)

34. And [mention] when We said to the angels, "Prostrate before Adam"; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.


Prostration in the old times was a common sign of honoring someone and it was discontinued after Prophet Muhammad SAWW became prophet. The Ummah of Muhammad was asked not to prostrate before anyone but Allah in Salah. The angels; therefore, were asked to prostrate before Adam to honor him and obey Allah. Iblis was a Jinn (not angel) but he was allowed into the ranks of angels because he was one of the most devout worshippers of Allah. Among the residents of the earth he was one of the most active worshippers and was the most knowledgeable person among angels. His name was Azazil back then. These honors caused him to become arrogant. The first error (sin) was arrogance. He refused to prostrate before Adam AS and was expelled from the holy presence of Allah. 

CREATION OF HAWWA A.S., MARRIAGE, & PARADISE

35. And We said, "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers."
Adam AS went to sleep after this incidence. While he was sleeping, Allah took one of his left ribs, replaced it with flesh, and created Hawwa A.S. the first woman to be a comfort to him. Adam A.S. woke up next to her and said "My flesh and blood, my wife" - they were married before they were admitted into Paradise. Allah exonerated them and allowed them freedom. The only prohibition was to eat from the Forbidden Tree which could have been grape, barley, fig, date - any of those, not known for sure due to no mention in Quran or Sunnah. It is said that it was the tree from which angels ate and enjoyed eternal life, also anyone who ate from it was relieved from the call of nature.   

EXPULSION FROM PARADISE, SENT TO EARTH

36. But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, "Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time."
Satan caused them to deviate from their obedience and caused them to lose their life of abundance, comfort, and spacious dwelling. Allah ordered Adam and Hawwa A.S. to be expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth to live a life of limits, tests, and trials until the Day of Resurrection. 
Adam A.S. was created very tall with thick hair. When he ate from the Forbidden Tree his outer cover fell and his private parts were exposed. He ran away into Paradise, in shame, and his hair got caught in a tree. As he tried to free himself, Ar-Rahman (Allah) called him, 'O Adam! Are you running away from Me?" and he replied, "No, O my Lord! But I am shy." [Ibn Abi Hatim]. He stayed in Paradise for another hour - the time between Asr and Maghrib prayer (sunset) before he was sent to earth. Adam is said to have been sent to Dahna [between Makkah and Taif] [Ibn Abi Hatim]. Another saying is that he was sent to India, Hawwa A.S. was sent to Jeddah, and Shaytan was sent to Dustumaysan several miles from Basra. The snake was sent to Asbahan [Ibn Abi Hatim]. All of these events, the creation of Adam, admittance to Paradise and expulsion happened on a Friday. 

ADAM A.S.' REPENTANCE

37. Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.
Adam A.S. was destined to sin. Then Allah sent him some words of dua so he could seek repentance. On earth, Adam repented and supplicated to Allah. His dua was:

Rabbana Zalamna Anfusana Wa InLam Taghfirlana Wa Tarhamna Lanakoonanna Minal Khasireen
"Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If you forgive us not, and bestow not upon is Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers" [Surah Al-A'raf, 23].