STUBBORNNESS & UNREASONABLE ARGUING OF JEWS & ALLAH'S TRIAL
67. And [recall] when Moses said to his people, "Indeed, Allah commands you to slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you take us in ridicule?" He said, "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant."
A wealthy man from the Children of Israel (Jews of Prophet Musa AS' time) was impotent (couldn't have children) and was murdered by his greedy nephew who was to inherit it all. He moved the body during the night and left it at another man's doorstep, framing him for the murder. He claimed revenge the next day and a riot broke out, causing people to lift weapons against each other in trying to find out who the murderer was. Some wise men advised consulting Prophet Musa AS. The Prophet, following Allah's Command, asked them to slaughter a very specific cow. The Jews started unreasonable arguing and questioning.
68. They said, "Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is." [Moses] said, "[ Allah ] says, 'It is a cow which is neither old nor virgin, but median [below the age of breeding] between that,' so do what you are commanded."
69. They said, "Call upon your Lord to show us what is her color." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in color [deep yellowish white, appears to radiate sun's rays]- pleasing to the observers.' "
70. They said, "Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is. Indeed, [all] cows look alike to us. And indeed we, if Allah wills, will be guided."
71. He said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to plow the earth nor to irrigate the field, one free from fault with no spot upon her [honorable, fair looking, defects-free].' " They said, "Now you have come with the truth." So they slaughtered her, but they could hardly do it.
Had they simply slaughtered a cow, as Allah had ordered, their matters would have been simple. But they were stubborn and asked many, unreasonable, argumentative questions about its age, color, and function. Even when they found the cow, they were reluctant to slaughter it.
The specified cow was found after much search and its owner demanded gold equal to the cow's skin's fill in exchange for it. The cow was slaughtered and the dead Israeli man was touched with a part of it, the man miraculously by the Will of Allah came to life. The people questioned him about his killer and he pointed to his nephew and died again. The nephew was barred from inheriting his wealth and that became the law - murder for sake of inheritance will ban the murderer from inheritance [Ibn Abi Hathim 1:114].
72. And [recall] when you slew a man and disputed over it, but Allah was to bring out that which you were concealing.
73. So, We said, "Strike the slain man with part of it." Thus does Allah bring the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you might reason.
Allah put the Jews argument over the murdered man and the stubbornness to rest by bringing forth the miracle of Resurrection.
74. Then your hearts became hardened after that, being like stones or even harder. For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out, and there are some of them that fall down [from mountaintops] for fear of Allah . And Allah is not unaware of what you do.
Allah has criticized the Jews in this verse and has warned the believers not to imitate them. Humbleness and fear of Allah is inherent in all inanimate creation as mentioned in many verses of the Quran e.g. Heavens and Earth glorify Him, stars and trees prostrate before Him, the skins of humans will testify on the Day of Judgement, Mount Uhud loves us, Hijr Aswad [Black Stone] used to greet Prophet Muhammad SAW. So, the Jews in this verse have been called worse than stones.